Breathing and Diseases of Lungs and Airways

June 28, 2009

Emphysema of Lungs

Emphysema is a disease of the alveoli. This disease often affects people who already suffer from chronic bronchitis. The walls of many of the alveoli break down or become overstretched. Therefore movement of oxygen into the blood is slower because there are fewer alveoli. People with chronic bronchitis and emphysema of the lungs usually have a cough which carries large amounts of mucus (phlegm) up to the mouth. They find breathing difficult, and they wheeze all the time as they breathe. They move slowly. They find it difficult to climb even a few steps because they quickly become exhausted. People who suffer from bronchitis and emphysema are much more likely to get pneumonia than are healthy people. Pneumonia is very dangerous for people with emphysema. If someone with emphysema gets pneumonia as well, this usually kills them.

Each year about thousands of men and women die from bronchitis and emphysema, many of them having suffered years of disability. The number of people actually suffering from these diseases is far greater. Several million working days are lost each year due entirely to sickness caused by these two diseases.

The proportion of people who die from chronic bronchitis and emphysema has been falling steadily in recent years. There are probably several reasons for this. Various clean air laws have provided smokeless zones in towns and cities. These laws have reduced the amount of coal smoke and other fumes in the air. Conditions in factories are better than they were. There are better ways of protecting workers from dusts and smoke. These include dust extractors and special protective clothing, especially face masks. There have been several improvements in the treatment of patients with bronchitis. They can be made to feel more comfortable and they probably live a little longer. Fewer people now smoke cigarettes. Those who do smoke, may be smoking less. The tar and nicotine content of cigarettes sold have both been reduced steadily in recent years. Tar and nicotine are both harmful.

Bronchitis and Its Symptoms

One of the most common breathing diseases is bronchitis. Bronchitis is a disease of the air passages.

In this disease too much mucus is produced in the air passages, and the walls become inflamed. The ciliated cells are gradually destroyed, and so the only way to move the mucus up to the mouth is by coughing. The extra mucus and the inflamed walls both make the air passages narrower. This obviously makes breathing more difficult.

Common symptoms of bronchitis are wheezing and a tight feeling in the chest, especially in the morning. This causes great discomfort and distress. Chronic bronchitis seems to be caused by breathing air containing dust, smoke of various kinds or other fumes for several years.

The disease is more common in towns than it is in country districts. It is also more common in smokers than in non-smokers. About 95 people out of every 100 with chronic bronchitis are smokers.